v3.0 (Nov 2011)

This Policy addresses the use of animals and alternatives in education and training. It defines ‘alternatives’ and ‘harm’, and presents specific policies addressing dissection, the sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue, and the use of live animals in the clinic and the field, from the perspective of designing and carrying out practical classes. It also presents a specific policy on the use of animals for making alternatives. To facilitate replacement of harmful animal use in non-ideal circumstances, further specific policies describe the conditions for acceptable compromise relating to the sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue, and the use of live animals for making alternatives.

1. Position statement

2. Definition of alternatives in education and training

3. Definition of harm

4. Policy on animal dissection

5. Policy on ethical sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue

6. Policy on other sources of animal cadavers, organs and tissue

7. Policy on live animal use for clinical skills and surgery training

8. Policy on live animal field studies

9. Policy on the ethical use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives

10. Policy on the other use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives

 

1. Position statement

InterNICHE supports high quality humane education and training within the life sciences, and the use of alternatives to meet teaching objectives. InterNICHE is against all harmful use of animals in education and training, including the harming and killing of animals for their cadavers, organs and tissue, for live experimentation and skills training, for ethology and field studies, and for making alternatives.

 

2. Definition of alternatives in education and training

Alternatives are humane learning tools and approaches that can replace harmful animal use or complement existing humane education and training. Alternatives may be non-animal tools, or may be approaches that involve neutral or beneficial work with animals. They comprise:

• Film and video

• Models, mannekins and simulators

• Multimedia computer simulation

• Ethically sourced animal cadavers, organs and tissue

• Clinical work with patients

• Student self-experimentation

• In vitro labs

• Field studies

 

3. Definition of harm

Harm comprises any action, deliberate or otherwise, that impinges on an animal’s current and future well-being by denying or limiting any of the following freedoms:

• Freedom to live

• Freedom to express full natural behaviour

• Freedom to be part of a social structure and ecosystem

• Freedom from hunger and thirst

• Freedom from discomfort

• Freedom from pain, injury and disease

• Freedom from fear and distress

Harm caused to an animal within education and training is only acceptable when it is the unavoidable consequence of action taken to benefit the individual animal; in certain circumstances when an animal is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury (see 7.6, 7.7); when it comprises the act of humane euthanasia (see 7.8); and in certain circumstances when the action is taken to benefit the species or to produce an alternative, given the harm inflicted is only brief and minor (see 7, 8, 9, 10). In the latter case, cost-benefit analyses concerning harm and potential benefit to the individual animal, to other animals and to the species should be conducted.

 

4. Policy on animal dissection

InterNICHE accepts that animal dissection can be a useful tool for knowledge and skills acquisition, and may encourage an appreciation of life, when all of the following conditions are met:

4.1   The animal cadaver is ethically sourced (see 5) or from an acceptable other source (see 6)

4.2   The dissection is performed no lower than university level

4.3   The dissection is relevant for the student’s career

4.4   The student’s ethical position concerning dissection is respected

4.5   The dissection is performed within the context of respect for life and respect for the cadaver

4.6   The dissection is complemented by observation of free-living animals of the same species, wherever possible

4.7   Instructors are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

4.8   Ethics, including animal rights and welfare, animal use and alternatives, and the human-animal bond, are explored openly and fully

 

5. Policy on ethical sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue

InterNICHE is against all harmful use of animals in education and training, including the harming and killing of animals for sourcing cadavers, organs and tissue. Such material may provide a useful resource for knowledge and skills acquisition, however, and InterNICHE accepts its use when it has been ethically sourced. InterNICHE recognises an animal cadaver, organ or tissue as ethically sourced when all of the following conditions are met:

5.1   The animal was not captured, bought, bred, kept, harmed or killed to provide the cadaver, organ or tissue

5.2   The animal was a free-living wild, stray, or companion animal before death

5.3   The animal died from natural causes or an accident, or was humanely euthanised secondary to natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury (see 5.4)

5.4   The decision to euthanise the animal was made by a qualified veterinarian with consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests

5.5   Consent for the animal cadaver, organ or tissue to be used in education or training has been given by the animal’s guardian (if any)

5.6   Ethically sourced tissue from living animals comprises only left-over tissue deriving from beneficial surgery or clinical procedures, and scheduled for disposal; or tissue deriving from natural activity such as giving birth, and abandoned by the animal

5.7   The cadaver, organ or tissue is not needed for the clinical benefit of another animal, or for the benefit of the species

5.8   Those involved in the process of sourcing are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

5.9   All stages of the process of sourcing are carried out within the context of respect for life and respect for the cadaver, organ or tissue; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

 

6. Policy on other sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue

Animal cadavers, organs and tissue are usually obtained from sources where animals suffer harm or are killed, such as research facilities, animal breeders, farms, slaughterhouses, zoos, sporting events, and some animal shelters. InterNICHE does not consider material from these sources, including so-called ‘waste’ or ‘surplus’ material, to be ethically sourced: its ethical nature has been compromised or negated by the harming, killing and/or marketing of the animal at some stage of his/her life.

However, cadavers, organs and tissue from species of animal that are less common as free-living wild, stray, or companion animals, may be hard to source ethically. In these cases, other sources of material, such as some of the above, may in certain circumstances provide an appropriate solution to the ethical challenge.

Deriving animal cadavers, organs and tissue from other sources is an acceptable compromise when all of the following conditions are met:

6.1   Animal cadavers, organs or tissue are genuinely required for practical work or for making an alternative, and no ethically sourced and appropriate material is available

6.2   The animal was not captured, bought, bred, kept, harmed or killed to provide the cadaver, organ or tissue

6.3   The animal died from natural causes or an accident, or was humanely euthanised secondary to natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; or the cadaver, organ or tissue is destined for disposal, or has been abandoned by the animal (see 6.4)

6.4   The decision to euthanise the animal was made by a qualified veterinarian with consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests

6.5   The cadaver, organ or tissue is not needed for the clinical benefit of another animal or for the benefit of the species

6.6   The process of sourcing provides zero support and validation for activity involving animal harm or killing, and no market for the material is created or supported

6.7   Those involved in the process of sourcing are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

6.8   All stages of the process of sourcing are carried out within the context of respect for life and respect for the cadaver, organ or tissue; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

 

7. Policy on live animal use for clinical skills and surgery training

InterNICHE considers the use of live animals in the clinical setting to be an integral part of knowledge and skills acquisition for veterinary students, acceptable when all of the following conditions are met:

7.1   Opportunities for clinical skills and surgery training are built around the needs and well-being of individual free-living wild, stray and companion animal patients, and healthy companion animal volunteers

7.2   The animal is not captured, bought, bred, kept, harmed or killed for the purpose of training, except for harm and/or euthanasia in certain circumstances with animal patients (see 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8)

7.3   Clinical skills training with a companion animal volunteer is beneficial or neutral in its effect on the individual animal, with rewards not punishment given as encouragement; and the training is stopped whenever fear or discomfort is evidenced

7.4   The clinical procedure and/or treatment chosen for an animal patient is the most appropriate and best possible for the well-being of the individual animal, and is aimed at healing, unless the animal requires euthanasia

7.5   Harm caused to an animal patient during a clinical procedure and/or treatment is acceptable when it is the minimum harm necessary for successful work aimed at healing the animal; and in certain circumstances during procedures involving an animal that is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; and when it comprises the act of humane euthanasia (see 7.6, 7.7, 7.8)

7.6   Clinical skills and surgery training that involves a terminal procedure is acceptable only when an animal is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; and for whom a decision to euthanise has been made by a qualified veterinarian with the consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests (see 7.7, 7.8)

7.7   Harm caused during an invasive and/or terminal procedure on an animal that is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury is acceptable only when the harm is not subjectively experienced by the animal; and only for the purpose of training for clinical practice; and when it comprises the act of humane euthanasia (see 7.8)

7.8   Euthanasia is acceptable when an animal is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; and when the decision to euthanise has been made by a qualified veterinarian with the consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests

7.9   The student’s ethical position concerning the use of live animals in the clinical setting is respected

7.10   Instructors are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

7.11  Clinical skills and surgery training with an animal patient or companion animal volunteer is supervised by a qualified instructor at all times

7.12   The student has the appropriate level of skills mastery, accomplished using non-animal and other alternative methods, prior to participation in clinical skills and surgery training with an animal patient or companion animal volunteer

7.13  All elements of clinical skills and surgery training are carried out within the context of respect for life and respect for the animal; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

7.14  Ethics, including animal rights and welfare, animal use and alternatives, and the human-animal bond, are explored openly and fully

 

8. Policy on live animal field studies

InterNICHE considers the educational study of free-living wild or stray animals to be a valuable experience, acceptable when all of the following conditions are met:

8.1   Opportunities for field studies are built around the needs and well-being of individual free-living wild and stray animals, animal species, and the ecosystem

8.2   The animal is not captured, bought, bred, kept,harmed or killed for the purpose of the study, except for capture and/or harm in certain circumstances that are beneficial to the individual animal, species or ecosystem (see 8.4, 8.5)

8.3   Field studies cause zero or minimal disturbance to an animal, his/her social structure and the ecosystem; or have a beneficial impact on an animal, species or ecosystem

8.4   Capture and/or harm caused to an animal is acceptable only when the animal is a patient, or will benefit from a clinical procedure; and in certain circumstances for the benefit of the species or ecosystem (see 8.5)

8.5   Capture and/or harm caused to an animal for the benefit of the species or ecosystem is acceptable only when it comprises minor, temporary harm and/or capture of very short duration, with no physical pain; and should not jeopardise the animal’s future well-being

8.6   Field studies avoid threatened or endangered species and ecosystems, unless considerable benefit for an individual animal, species or ecosystem is expected to be derived

8.7   The student’s ethical position concerning the study of free-living wild and stray animals is respected

8.8   The use of cadavers, organs and tissue from free-living wild and stray animals accords with the ‘Policy on ethical sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue’ or ‘Policy on other sources of animal cadavers, organs and tissue’ (see 5, 6)

8.9   Clinical work with free-living wild or stray animals accords with the ‘Policy on live animal use for clinical skills and surgery training’ (see 7)

8.10  The use of free-living wild or stray animals for making alternatives accords with the ‘Policy on the ethical use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives’ or ‘Policy on other use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives’ (see 9, 10)

8.11  Instructors are ethically and environmentally aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity that involves animals and that impacts onecosystems

8.12  Field studies are supervised by a qualified instructor at all times

8.13  All elements of field studies are carried out within the context of respect for life, respect for the animal, species and ecosystem; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

8.14  Ethics, including environmental ethics, animal rights and welfare, animal use and alternatives, and the human-animal bond, are explored openly and fully

 

9. Policy on the ethical use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives

InterNICHE is against all harmful use of animals in education and training, including that for the creation of alternatives. If a live animal or animal cadaver, organ or tissue is required for making an alternative, InterNICHE accepts this use when all of the following conditions are met:

9.1   An alternative for the practical does not already exist or is not practicably available

9.2   The animal is not captured, bought, bred, kept,harmed or killed for the purpose of making the alternative, except for harm and/or euthanasia in certain circumstances during procedures involving invasive and/or terminal live animal use (see 9.4, 9.5)

9.3   The animal cadaver, organ or tissue is ethically sourced (See 5)

9.4   Invasive and/or terminal live animal use is acceptable only when an animal is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; and when a decision to euthanise has already been made by a qualified veterinarian with the consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests (see 9.5)

9.5   Harm caused during an invasive and/or terminal procedure on an animal is acceptable only when the harm is not subjectively experienced by the animal; and when it comprises the act of humane euthanasia

9.6   All persons involved in making alternatives are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

9.7   All stages of the process of making the alternative are carried out within the context of respect for life, respect for the live animal, animal cadaver, organ or tissue; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

 

10. Policy on the other use of live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue for making alternatives

Live animals and animal cadavers, organs and tissue used in the process of making alternatives are usually obtained from sources where animals suffer harm or are killed, such as research facilities, animal breeders, farms, slaughterhouses, zoos, sporting events, and some animal shelters. InterNICHE does not support using these sources for live animals, animal cadavers, organs and tissue, as their ethical nature has been compromised or negated by the harming, killing and/or marketing of the animal at some stage of his/her life.

When a free-living wild, stray or companion animal suffering from terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury is not available for invasive and/or terminal live use for making an alternative, then deriving so-called ‘waste’ or ‘surplus’ live animals from other sources, such as some of the above, may in certain circumstances provide an appropriate solution to the ethical challenge. Similarly, when an ethically sourced animal cadaver, organ or tissue is not available, then other sources may provide a solution.

Deriving from other sources a live animal for use in invasive and/or terminal procedures, or animal cadaver, organ or tissue, is an acceptable compromise for the purpose of making an alternative when all of the following conditions are met:

10.1   An alternative for the practical does not already exist or is not practicably available

10.2   The animal is genuinely required for making the alternative, and no ethical source of a live animal or animal cadaver, organ or tissue is available

10.3   The alternative to be made will replace harmful animal use in education or training, and will be available for students to use

10.4   The live animal was destined for killing before being sourced, and was not captured, bought, bred, harmed or killed for use in making the alternative, except for harm and/or euthanasia in certain circumstances during procedures involving invasive and/or terminal live animal use (see 10.5, 10.6, 10.8, 10.9)

10.5   If live animal use is required, priority is given to the sourcing and use of an animal when he/she is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury; and when a decision to euthanise has already been made by a qualified veterinarian with consent of the animal’s guardian (if any), based on the interests of the animal and not motivated by practical or economic interests (see 10.8, 10.9)

10.6   If an animal could be recovered and rehomed, then he/she should be recovered and rehomed, and not used for a terminal procedure or one that will necessitate euthanasia

10.7   All sourcing of a live animal and invasive non-terminal live animal use results in some direct or indirect benefit for the animal, such as being saved from killing, being neutered during a procedure, and being recovered and rehomed

10.8   All invasive live animal use causes zero additional harm to the animal, and should not jeopardise the animal’s future well-being, except in certain circumstances during procedures involving an animal that is suffering from natural terminal disease or serious non-recoverable injury (see 10.9)

10.9   Harm caused during an invasive and/or terminal procedure on an animal is acceptable only when the harm is not subjectively experienced by the animal; and when it comprises the act of humane euthanasia

10.10  The sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue accords with the ‘Policy on ethical sourcing of animal cadavers, organs and tissue’ or ‘Policy on other sources of animal cadavers, organs and tissue’ (see 5, 6)

10.11  The process of sourcing provides zero support and validation for activity involving animal harm or killing, and no market for the animals is created or supported

10.12  All persons involved in making alternatives are ethically aware and responsible, and have appropriate training and competence for all activity and procedures that involve animals

10.13  All stages of the process of sourcing are carried out within the context of respect for life and respect for the animal; and to the highest ethical, welfare, health and safety standards

 

Download the Policy

 

 


Warning: Table './interniche@002dnew/watchdog' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:424:\"Table './interniche@002dnew/accesslog' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: INSERT INTO accesslog (title, path, url, hostname, uid, sid, timer, timestamp) values('InterNICHE Policy on the Use of Animals and Alternatives in Education and Training', 'node/1685', '', '54.87.61.215', 0, '892a2cbcce437457d7709bf01fc68aaf', 1104, 1558399641)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:56:\"/var/www/web256/web/modules/statistics/statistics.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:63 in /var/www/web256/web/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134